, » (24-26.12.13 » Shnip J. V. TH BLNCD CGNTV-RGMTC RDGM F LNGUG RSD B RFSSR JN NUTS N CMRSN WTH THR THRS

Shnip J. V. TH BLNCD CGNTV-RGMTC RDGM F LNGUG RSD B RFSSR JN NUTS N CMRSN WTH THR THRS

: (24-26.12.13, Գ

Shnip Julia Valeriyivna

 

Faculty of linguistics, National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Ukraine, Kyiv

 

TH BLNCD CGNTV-RGMTC RDGM F LNGUG RSD B RFSSR JN NUTS N CMRSN WTH THR THRS

 

Th ntn f lngug n ctn hs bcm th rsn fr rll grwng munt f rsrchs nd grt numbr f thrtcl dscussns fr th lst dcds. Gnrtv lngustcs ws cnsdrd t b brnch f cgntv studs f th humn mnd nd brn. But n ntrstng thng s tht n cgntv lngustcs w r currntl wtnssng “rgmtc turn”, whch dffrs frm th trdtnl frmwrk cntrd n rrsnttn twrds rdgm fcusd n th undrstndng th cgntn s nctv nd sklful ctvt nvlvng ngng ntrctn wth th xtrnl wrld.

In general, an adequate assessment of language or of any linguistic phenomenon in particular, has to focus on both the communicative-functional and cognitive dimensions at the same time [4, p.55]. After all, to make in practice a moderately balanced approach to both properties of language is very difficult. They concern more the cognitive dimension or the communicative-functional dimension. The action-relatedness of cognition and its inability to be reinterpreted is demonstated by numerous researches.

n stutn f mult-rdgmlt th mdrn lngustcs nclns t frm nw mgrdgm (ccrdng t th lngust Kubrkv) r rchrdgm (ccrdng t th trmnlg f Stnv). Ths nw t f rdgm cncntrts n rcnt chvmnt f ndvdul ns bsd n cmmn fturs. n rcnt dcds th cntrl rdgms wr th rgmtc nd cgntv. Thrtcl wrk n rgmtcs (tht cn b ncludd n cgntv rgmtcs) hs bn rfrmd b hlshrs snc th 1960s (Grc, Rcnt, Lvnsn).Th ntn “cgntv rgmtcs” hs bn ntrducd b Kshr n 1988. Sm hlshcl wrk whch hs bn dn wthn cgntv rgmtcs (b schlrs such s Kshr, Vndrvkn), ncludd sttng gnrl thrtcl frmwrk fr cgntv studs f th lngug us. Sstms f lngustc thr hv bn dvld b lngusts Srbr nd Wlsn fr th xlntn f sm bsc rblms n rgmtcs. Fr xml, n unfd thr, whch xlns bth hlshcl nd lngustc scts f lngug us. D. Srbr nd D. Wlsn dn th xstnc f rgmtcs s srt mdul nd cnsdr t t b rt f th cgntv rdgm. Th lngust Kshr grs wth th cnct rsntd b D. Srbr nd D. Wlsn. Thr rl wrk n “rlvnc thr” (1986) shrd th ssumtn f th hlshrs such s Grc, Fdr nd Dvdsn wh cnsdrd th rgmtc ntrrttn t b sml mttr f lng gnrl urs t rtculr (cmmunctv) dmn. ccrdng t ths rch, rgmtcs s nt mdul: thr r n nntl dtrmnd scl urs rncls whch l nl n th rgmtc dmn. Ths thr s xctd t mrg frm such srt hlshcl nd lngustc studs [4, .78]. Lngustc nd schlgcl studs f lcblt f rgmtcs hv ftn bn bsd n th ssumtn tht ntur lngug s cqurd s cmmunctn mlmnt drctl rltd t rvusl cqurd, nn-vrbl cmmunctn mlmnts. But ccrdng t Chmsk th cgntv rgmtcs s rt f th cgntv studs f lngug tht s rltd t th rgmtc sd f th lngug us.

Thr s n gnrl sttmnt f th rl f th rgmtc fctrs n sch cmrhnsn nd rductn. Mn rsrchs cncrn sm rthr rstrctd but ntrstng rblms, such s undrstndng ndrct sch cts, nurschlgcl scts f th lngug us. Th schlr Nuts (1992) ut frwrd hs wn cgntv-rgmtc thr, whr th cgntv nd rgmtc scts r nt n stn nd d nt cmlt ch thr, but rrsnt tw dffrnt fcts f th sm hnmnn [3, .10].

n rncl, th crrltn btwn th (cmmunctv) functnl nd th cgntv dmnsns s nt mttr f findng blnc. n rdr t undrstnd lngug, n hs t b cncrnd s much s ssbl wth bth dmnsns. n fct, th cnnt b usd n mutul ndndnc f ch thr. n trm ‘‘ntlg’’ bth ntns rlt t dffrnt but qull nhrnt scts f lngug ccrdng t rfssr Nuts xlntn. H clms tht th r tw sds f th sm ntn. f lngug s vwd s bhvurl sstm f humn bng, th functnl dmnsn rfrs t th ‘‘rtnl’’ sd. Th cgntv dmnsn rfrs t th ‘‘nfrstructurl’’ sd tht sgnfs th sstm f lngug t b nlzd n trms f th humn ‘‘blgcl’’ frmtn (brdl skng) nd hw t s ‘‘bult u’’ (ts ttrn, hw t functns t rduc th bhvur). ccrdngl, ths dmnsns rfr t wht th mlmnt s usd fr nd wht t lks lk. Th crrltn btwn ths dmnsns s nt csul. Thr s unvdbl sstmtc ntrdndnc btwn wht n mlmnt, rgrdlss f ts cmlxt, cn d nd hw t s bult u, lthugh ths sstmtct cn b vr cmlx n th cs f th lngug t b hghl shstctd functnl sstm. Th fct tht n mlmnt cn b ‘‘msusd’’ fr urss thr thn ths ntndd clsscl rgumnt gnst th vw suggstd bv ds nt ltr ths n n w. Th fct tht n cn dstngush ‘‘uss’’ nd ‘‘msuss’’ ctull s ttntn t th sgnfcnc f thr crrltn. nd mrvr, vn msuss r rltd t th frm f th mlmnt [2, .96]. Ths mns tht n cnnt msus t fr just nthng. Th scntfc cmrhnsn f functnl sstm lws mns full undrstndng f bth functnl nd nfrstructurl sds, s wll s th ntrdndnc btwn thm. Suggstd b Nuts mthd f ‘‘fndng blnc’’ mns tht n hs t dnc n tght r btwn th tw, but ctull n shuld stnd n n qus.

n th trms f ‘‘scntfic stmlg’’ nd n functnl sstm such s lngug (r n thr cgntv sstm) th tw dmnsns r nt qutbl. Th functnl dmnsn s rt f th vsul sd f lngug snc t s nhrnt n th ‘‘xtrnlzd’’ bhvur nd t s nurlgcll rlzd. But w cnnt ‘‘bsrv’’ th mnd nd ts functnng b lkng t brn. f n cnnt ‘‘bsrv’’ th nfrstructur but nl nlz chrctrztn f t b lkng t wht gs nt nd wht cms ut f t, t th rtnl sd, nd b ndrctl figurng ut th structurs nd ntrnl rtns ndd t mk th lttr ssbl. n thr trms n nlss f th lngug rgmtsm r f n scfic lngustc hnmnn s ncssr nd crucl rt f th ‘‘mthdlg’’ [1, .35].

n rdr t undrstnd th cgntv nfrstructur f lngug, n nds t cncrn much mr thn nl th fcts f th rtnl sd. Lngug s just n f th vrus cgntv sstms, whch hv thr wn rtnl ssus nd hthss cncrnng th nfrstructur. ll ths wll dstnctl nflunc th w n whch n cn ‘‘ntrrt’’ bsrvtns frm th functnl dmnsn nt hthss but th cgntv dmnsn. But tht rll ds nt chng th rl f th functnl dmnsn mntnd bv.

Thus, thr s n rsct f findng blnc btwn th tw dmnsns, but nl f mxmzng n’s cncrn wth bth n full crrltn. t s th fct tht ndvdul schlrs cn sl ln mr twrds n f thm n vrd rctc. Sm nhrnt n th scntfic ‘‘hbts’’ xst vn n crtn trdtnl rsrch mthds. Sm rsrchrs nd rsrch rdgms r bsd nl n th functnl dmnsn, bcus th sml hv nt ntrstd n th cgntv dmnsn (sm rsrch rdgms vn cnsdr ths vrtu, .g., cnvrstnl nlss). But thr s trdtnl mthd t rl cnsdrtn f th functnl dmnsn whl trng t dvl thrs but th lngug nfrstructur. rbbl, th dffrncs n th rng f grmmtcl nd smntc thrs btwn currnt cgntv lngustc rchs l Lngckr r Tlm, nd mr ‘‘trdtnl’’ functnlst rchs (such s ths b Gvn r Chf) bscll mnmz ths ssu [2, .45].

Thr m b dffrnt rsns fr such vrtn. Fr xml, mst f cgntv lngustcs fcuss mr n smntc hnmn such s dffrnt scts f hw w cnctull ctgrz ‘‘th wrld,’’ whl mst f functnl lngustcs fcuss mr n hw dscursv nd cntxtul hnmn dtrmn wht w s nd hw w s t. Thus, th frmr fcuss mr n hw w ‘‘ntrnll’’ (cgntvl) rrsnt nfrmtn cdd n lngug, thn n hw w buld lngustc uttrncs t ‘‘xtrnll’’ ct (t functn cmmunctvl) n th wrld. Cnsquntl, cgntv lngustc nd functnl lngustc thrs lk qut dffrnt bcus th strss dffrnt scts f lngug. Th dffrncs btwn rchs s n rt ls mttr f dvrgnt nns but hw t nlz th functnl r th cgntv dmnsns, r thr rltnshs. n fct, such thrtcl dffrncs cn sl mrg frm th rctcl dffrncs n rsrch fcus.

Clrl, th ctul rsrch tcs n whch Nuts s fcusng culd gn b clmd t rtn mr t n thn t th thr dmnsn. Nuts’s r f sclztn s stmc mdlt nd thr ‘‘qulfictns f stts f ffrs’’ (‘‘tns-sct-mdlt mrkng,’’ n nthr trmnlg), nd hs fcus f thrtcl ntrst s but hw w humns cnctulz th wrld nd hw lngustc structur nd rltd rcssng. t sms mr cgntv thn functnl. But n th w Nuts nlzs th mrcl dt h trs t full ttntn t th functnl structur f mdl xrssns n ll ts scts (hw lngug usrs us thm n cmmunctn). n rdr t drw nfrncs frm ths but th ssu f lngug nd thught, th rfssr trs t ccunt fr th full rng f functnl dmnsns ncuntrd n th dt, nd thr rltns. Mrvr, whn drwng nfrncs frm ths ssus but hw t mdl lngug s cgntv sstm fr cmmunctn [1, .272]. Jn Nuts tks nt ccunt th fct tht wht h hs t s but ths nds t cnfrm t wht thrs s but rltd ssus n th bss f mrcll sund nlss, nd tht n th lght f ths thr dt nd nlss, h m hv t djust hs wn nlss, whl rmnng fthful t wn rng f mrcl fcts.

ur subjct f nvstgtn ws cnnctd wth th scts f th cgntv-rgmtc thr f lngug. Cgntv rgmtcs s th stud f th lngustc scts f lngug usd wthn th mthdlgcl nd thrtcl frmwrk f cgntv scnc. n cgntv lngustcs s n ll scncs td thr s tndnc f "rgmtc turn" whch s nlzd b mn lngusts, such s Kubrkv, Stnv, Shrbr, Wlsn, Kshr, Grc, Rcnt, Lvnsn nd thrs. Sm f thm clm rgmtcs t b rt f th cgntv rdgm nd thrs hv thr wn vw n ths cnct. n cmrsn wth thr schlrs, th n wh hs suggstd th blncd grundbrkng thr ws rfssr Jn Nuts. H cnsdrd th cgntv nd rgmtc scts t b nt sd, but t rrsnt tw dffrnt fcts f th sm hnmnn. Th cgntv studs tht d nt rst n ths rblmtc ssumtn stll rmn t b cncrnd.

Durng ur rsrch w llustrtd th rltnsh btwn th lngustc nd cnctul lvls ntrducd b rfssr Nuts. But t s n mmnsl cmlx ssu. rfssr clms tht mng ll cgntv sstms, cnctulztn s rbbl ccssbl fr bsrvtn. Nuts ls suss th cnctul nd th lngustc sstms t hv dffrnt functns. Hvng nlzd th functnng f th cgntv-rgmtc thr nd ts lcblt t th blngul nd multlngul sstms ccrdng t rfssr Nuts w hv md th cnclusn tht n cs f th trm ‘‘cgntv-rgmtc’’ mrkng scfic bsc w f thnkng but th ntur f lngug nd ts nvstgtn whch cn b rlvnt fr th rsrch n blngulsm nd multlngulsm.

 

References:

1. Nuyts Jan. Epistemic Modality, Language, and Conceptualization: A Cognitive-Pragmatic Perspective. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 2001. – p. 300

2. Nuyts Jan. Cognitive linguistics and functional linguistics. In Dirk Geeraerts, Hubert Cuyckens (eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. – p.63

3. Pederson, Eric and Jan Nuyts. On the relationship between language and conceptualization. In Jan Nuyts, Eric Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. – p.80

4. V.Y. Zabotkyna. Cognitive Basis of Semantic Changes // Current Issues in Unity and Diversity of Languages. Published by Linguistic Society of Korea by Dongnam Publishing Co., Republic of Korea, 2009. – p. 97

 

 

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