Наукові конференції, Научные конференции » АКТУАЛЬНІ НАУКОВІ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ (22-24.12.2015) » Candidate of Science (Linguistics), Holub O. M., Miroshnichenko D. O. CURRENT ISSUES IN THE FORMATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

Candidate of Science (Linguistics), Holub O. M., Miroshnichenko D. O. CURRENT ISSUES IN THE FORMATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

Категорія: АКТУАЛЬНІ НАУКОВІ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ (22-24.12.2015), Філологічні науки

УДК 378.147:81'243

 

CURRENT ISSUES IN THE FORMATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

Candidate of Science (Linguistics), Holub O. M., Miroshnichenko D. O.

Donbas State Teachers’ Training University, Ukraine, Sloviansk

 

The article deals with urgent methodological issues in foreign language teaching presented in the studies of M. Saville-Trojke, E. Dabrowska, J. Street, R. Slabakova, R. Kiely, M. Swain and D. Nunan. One of such problems is the role of Grammar in the formation of FL learners’ linguistic competence. Summarizing data of recent research the author concludes that the focus on functional Grammar in the process of FL teachers’ professional training is important. The formation of speech competence may be formed with the help of task based language teaching (TBLT). The ideas of TBLT are being developed in modern methodology in terms of the definition of the term “the task”, the classification of tasks, the development of curricula, text-books etc.

 

Key words: communicative competence, linguistic competence, speech competence, functional morphology, task based language teaching.

кандидат філологічних наук, Голуб О. М., Мірошніченко Д. О. Актуальні питання формування професіональної комунікативної компетенції вчителя іноземної мови/ ДВНЗ «Донбаський державний педагогічний університет», Україна, Слов’янськ

Статтю присвячено огляду актуальних питань методики навчання іноземних мов. Зокрема, розглядається роль навчання граматиці у процесі формування іншомовної лінгвістичної компетенції. Аналізуючи результати сучасних досліджень, автор доходить висновку, що акцент на функціональній морфології є важливим елементом у навчанні іноземних мов у цілому і в професійній підготовці вчителів іноземних мов зокрема. Формування мовленнєвої компетенції пропонується реалізовувати за допомогою навчання мови, заснованому на завданні (task based language teaching), аналізу якого присвячено другу частину публікації.

Ключові слова: комунікативна компетенція, лінгвістична компетенція, мовленнєва компетенція, функціональна морфологія, навчання мови, засноване на завданні.

 

кандидат филологических наук, Голуб Е. М., Мирошниченко Д. А. Актуальные вопросы формирования профессиональной коммуникативной компетенции учителя иностранного языка / ГВУЗ «Донбасский государственный педагогический университет», Украина, Славянск

Статья посвящена обзору актуальных вопросов методики обучения иностранным языкам. В частности, рассматривается роль обучения грамматике в процессе формирования иноязычной лингвистический компетенции. Проанализировав результаты современных исследований, автор приходит к выводу, что акцент на функциональной морфологии является важным элементом обучения иностранному языку в целом и в профессиональной подготовке учителей иностранных языков в частности. Формирование речевой компетенции предлагается реализовывать с помощью задачно-ориентированного подхода, изучению которого посвящена вторая часть публикации.

Ключевые слова: коммуникативная компетенция, лингвистическая компетенция, речевая компетенция, функциональная морфология, задачно-ориентированный подход.

 

Professional training of FL teachers is aimed at the formation of the whole set of competences among which one can find: professional communicative competence, professional competences and general competences. Ukrainian methodologists classify these competences in the following way [1, pp. 263, 29]. Professional communicative competence comprises such competences as: linguistic, speech, socio-cultural, linguistic and country studies, subject, cross-cultural, strategic, social and others. Professional competences include: communicative competence (in one’s mother tongue), linguistic competence (general), psychological and pedagogical competences and methodological competence. General competences of a FL teacher embrace: general scientific competence, social and personal competence, instrumental (tool) competence etc.

In the interpretation of Muriel Saville-Trojke linguistic competence embraces knowledge of the lexicon, phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse which she defines as ways to connect sentences and organize information [2, p. 137].

Thus, effective teacher of a foreign language knows and can do a lot of things such as to plan a lesson, to motivate students and so on, but most importantly, he or she knows what to teach.

The practice of learning and teaching English as a foreign language proves that the most challenging aspects of language in the process of second language acquisition (SLA) are (in the order of decreasing difficulty): Morphology, Vocabulary, Syntax and Phonetics. If we speak about the English Vocabulary those who are either learning or teaching this language consider phrasal verbs and collocations to be the stumbling blocks of English. If we speak about the English Morphology, the use of articles, tense and aspect forms of the verb have been mentioned frequently.

It should be emphasized that these issues are hard to master not only for non-native speakers of English but for native speakers as well. For example, the recent research by E. Dabrowska and J. Street has proved that passive constructions are sometimes difficult for understanding even by low-educated native-speakers who show 36% of accuracy compared with 94% of non-native-speakers’ [3, p. 608]. Thus, bilingualism may actually enhance attention to formal cues in language processing as R. Slabakova concludes [4, p. 11].

Roumyana Slabakova, professor of Southampton University, has developed the Bottleneck Hypothesis illustrating the role of functional grammar in SLA. The scholar presents the rationale of the Bottleneck Hypothesis in the following way: 1) functional morphology reflects syntactic and semantic differences between languages; 2) narrow syntactic operations and meaning calculation are universal; 3) in order to acquire syntax and meaning in a second language, the learner has to go through the functional morphology; 4) hence, morphology is the bottleneck of acquisition [4, p. 21].

What are the practical implications of this Bottleneck Hypothesis? One may conclude that part of linguistic information in SLA comes from our knowledge of the mother tongue, a part comes from Universal Grammar but the major part of functional morphology is language-specific and that is why we should pay attention to grammatical forms, practice grammar in the classroom and when grammar moves from declarative memory (which a person can state in words) to procedural memory (for actions done automatically) of the learner we can focus on lexical learning and skills development [4, p. 22–23].

So the formation of linguistic competence tends to focus on functional morphology. And in the formation of speech competence a special role is performed by the task based language teaching (TBLT).

Doctor Richard Kiely uses several specific terms like student agency and languaging introducing the notion of task-based language teaching [5, p. 1]. They have been defined by M. Swain. Languaging refers to the process of making and shaping knowledge and experience through language. It is part of what constitutes learning. Languaging about language is one of the ways we learn language. This means that the languaging (the dialogue or private speech) about language that learners engage in takes on new significance. In it, we can observe learners operating on linguistic data and coming to an understanding of previously less well understood material. In languaging, we see learning taking place. Student agency presupposes that the learner acts as agent: as an individual who perceives, analyses, rejects or accepts solutions offered, makes decisions and so on [6].

R. Kiely states that in the PPP classroom (present, practice, produce) the teacher leads and controls everything. So there is limited space for student activity and student agency. PPP also involves a linear syllabus. So there is one chance to master grammatical rules and other elements of language. And finally, in the PPP format, lessons can become a bit tedious and predictable. So not the best way of motivating learners. In task based language teaching the focus is on meaning rather than form, on the things we do with language rather than the features of grammar and other rules. TBLT focuses on activities which engage students in using language in diverse and creative ways. R. Kiely proves that TBLT aligns with theoretical understandings of the processes of language learning in emphasizing the importance of meaning based language production and ‘noticing’ where learners using the language identify what it is they should be using, and also what it is they still have to learn as well as in promoting the notion of ‘languaging’ [5, p. 1].

Thus the key notion of TBLT is the task. It is viewed as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning and in which the intention is to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form [7, p. 4]. In TBLT real-world tasks are often transformed into pedagogical tasks which can be of two types: 1) rehearsal tasks which give an opportunity to rehearse some real-world situation; 2) activation tasks which are designed to activate learners’ emerging language skills [7, p. 20].

For example, a rehearsal task: write your resume and exchange it with a partner. Study the positions available advertisements in the newspaper and find three advertisements that would be suitable for your partner. Then compare your choices with the actual choice made by your partner.

One more example, an activation task: work with three other students. You are on a ship that is sinking. You have to swim to a nearby island. You have a waterproof container, but can only carry 20 kilos of items in it. Decide which of the following items you will take: axe (8 kilos); box of novels and magazines (3 kilos); cans of food (500 grams each); packets of sugar, flour, rice, powdered milk, coffee, tea (each packet weighs 500 grams); bottles of water (1.5 kilos each); medical kit (2 kilos); short-wave radio (12 kilos); portable CD player and CDs (4 kilos); firelighting kits (500 grams each); rope (6 kilos); notebook computer (3.5 kilos); waterproof sheets of fabric (3 kilos each). The purpose here is to activate certain language functions and structures: making suggestions, agreeing, disagreeing; how much/how many; special questions [7, p. 20].

And here it is important to highlight the role of a focus on Grammar in TBLT. There exist two interpretations of TBLT: strong and weak [7, p. 21]. Proponents of the strong interpretation say that language acquisition is a subconscious process in which the conscious teaching of grammar is unnecessary: “Language is best taught when it is being used to transmit messages, not when it is explicitly taught for conscious learning” [7, p. 21]. But generally, the role of a focus on form remains controversial in TBLT. And many scholars believe that 2 types of exercises are important: language exercises (providing focus on lexical, phonological or grammatical systems) and communicative activities (which have an element of meaningful communication and are thus half way to the pedagogical task [7, p. 22–24].

In the strong interpretation of TBLT tasks should be as realistic as possible for example: order a pizza by telephone in English; organize and publish a student newspaper; describe a photo or a series of photos; write a poem; exchange personal information with a new acquaintance etc.

As we can see from this scheme the focus on grammar is placed at the fourth stage while in traditional planning it would be rather the first or the second.

Focus on form is sometimes inherent in the nature of the task itself. For example, in the task of “narrative from picture sequence” type the outcome will be either the past tense narrative or the present tense narrative and thus we will have to focus either on the use of regular and irregular verbs in the past or on the use of third person singular present indicative form.

Thus one can conclude that there is still a need to develop some important aspects of task based language teaching especially concerning the sequence of lessons, curricula, text-books. But some of its elements can successfully be applied in ELC. Task based language teaching complies well not only with the aims of teaching a foreign language in primary schools but also can be used successfully in the process of FL teachers’ professional training. Professional communicative competence of FL teachers can be formed by means of this approach in all its aspects, linguistic, speech and socio-cultural among them.

 

Refernces:

1. Методика формування міжкультурної іншомовної комунікативної компетенції: курс лекцій: [навч.-метод. посібник для студ. мовних спец. осв.-кваліф. рівня «магістр»] / О. Б. Бігич, Н. Ф. Бориско, Г. Е. Борецька та ін. / за ред. С. Ю. Ніколаєвої. – К.: Ленвіт, 2010. – 332 с.

2. Saville-Trojke, M. Introducing Second language acquisition / M. Saville-Trojke. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2006. – 206 p.

3. Dabrowska E., Street J. Individual differences in language attainment: Comprehension of passive sentences by native and non-native English-speakers / E. Dabrowska, J. Street // Language Science : Elsevier, 2006. – Vol. 28. – Issue 6. – P. 604–615.

4. Slabakova R. The Bottleneck of Second Language Acquisition, http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/367089/1/Bottleneck%20Hypothesis%20submission%20(2).pdf.

5. Kiely R. Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT), https://ugc.futurelearn.com/uploads/files/15/79/15796659-5586-49d6-afa3-a6d2f5a2bff0/UL2_task_based_language_teaching.pdf.

6. Swain M. Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced second language proficiency / M. Swain // Advanced Language Learning : The contributions of Halliday and Vygotsky. – New York : Continuum. – PP. 95–108.

7. Nunan D. Task-based language teaching / D. Nunan. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2004. – 222 p.

 

Refernces:

1. Metodyka formuvannia mizhkulturnoi komunikatyvnoi kometentsii: kurs lektsii: [navchalno-metodychnyi posibnykj dlia studentiv навч.-метод. посібник для студ. мовних спец. осв.-кваліф. рівня «магістр» / O. B. Bihych, N. F. Borysko, H. E. Boretska ta in. / za red. S. Yu. Nikolaievoi. – K. : Lenvit, 2010. – 332 s.

2. Saville-Trojke, M. Introducing Second language acquisition / M. Saville-Trojke. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2006. – 206 p.

3. Dabrowska E., Street J. Individual differences in language attainment: Comprehension of passive sentences by native and non-native English-speakers / E. Dabrowska, J. Street // Language Science: Elsevier, 2006. – Vol. 28. – Issue 6. – P. 604–615.

4. Slabakova R. The Bottleneck of Second Language Acquisition, http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/367089/1/Bottleneck%20Hypothesis%20submission%20(2).pdf.

5. Kiely R. Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT), https://ugc.futurelearn.com/uploads/files/15/79/15796659-5586-49d6-afa3-a6d2f5a2bff0/UL2_task_based_language_teaching.pdf.

6. Swain M. Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced second language proficiency / M. Swain // Advanced Language Learning: The contributions of Halliday and Vygotsky. – New York : Continuum. – PP. 95–108.

7. Nunan D. Task-based language teaching / D. Nunan. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. – 222 p.

 

 

Уважаемый посетитель, Вы зашли на сайт как незарегистрированный пользователь.
Мы рекомендуем Вам зарегистрироваться либо войти на сайт под своим именем.

Добавление комментария

Имя:*
E-Mail:
Коментар:
Введите код: *

Карта сайту

^