UDC 7.04-035.3



O. Prystupa

Lutsk National Technical University, Ukraine, Lutsk


The article deals with the artistic and symbolic features of the system of decorating the residential architecture of Lutsk at the end of the 19th - the beginning of the 20th century, reveals the architectural and technological features of the wooden decoration of residential buildings, defines the means of forming the exterior in the context of socio-economic and cultural conditions of the region's development, substantiates the possibilities of practical use of artistic and design ideas in modern housing construction.

Key words: wooden decor, architectural decoration, stylistic features, symbolics, folk traditions.


Приступа О.В. Символічні особливості дерев’яного декору житлових будівель Луцька кінця ХІХ – початку ХХ століття / Луцький національний технічний університет, Україна, Луцьк

У статті розглядаються художні та символічні особливості системи оздоблення житлової архітектури Луцька кінця ХІХ – початку ХХ століття, виявляються архітектурно-технологічні ознаки дерев’яного декору житлових будівель, визначаються засоби формування екстер’єру у контексті соціально-економічних i культурних умов розвитку регіону, обґрунтовуються можливості практичного використання художньо-проектних ідей у сучасному житловому будівництві.

Ключові слова: дерев’яний декор, архітектурне оздоблення, стильові особливості, символіка, народні традиції.


Приступа О.В. Символические особенности деревянного декора жилых зданий Луцка конца ХІХ – начала ХХ века / Луцкий национальный государственный университет, Украина, Луцк

В статье рассматриваются художественные и символические особенности системы отделки жилой архитектуры Луцка конца XIX – начала ХХ века, архитектурно-технологические признаки деревянного декора жилых зданий, определяются средства формирования экстерьера в контексте социально-экономических и культурных условий развития региона, обосновываются возможности практического использования художественно-проектных идей в современном жилом строительстве.

Ключевые слова: деревянный декор, архитектурное убранство, стилевые особенности, символика, народные традиции.


Introduction. The multi-vector program of scientific researches of the Ukrainian art history of the last quarter of the XXth - beginning XXIst century refers to artistic phenomena, that have distinct local differences, with the aim of identifying national origins and outlining ethnic identity.

Architectonic decor (profiling, cutting, carving, forging, etc.) of city houses, mansions, villages of Volyn region in the end of XIXth - the first third of the XXth century was characterized by the particular artistic stylistics and expressiveness. This artistic phenomenon, that is closely related to the architecture, due to the main compositional characteristics belongs to the decorative art.

Comprehensive study of the system of decoration of residential architecture will allow to define patterns of development of stylistics on the local soil, to characterize the typology and artistic features of the elements of decor, which will contribute to the introduction of the new method in the modern architectural and decorative practice and design of the private urban housing.

Building of the city of Lutsk at the end of XIXth - beginning of XXth century left a highly samples of architectural art, which are represented by fragmentary, partially preserved buildings with time-varying rearrangements. Particularly relevant are issues of the reconstruction of preserved buildings, the organic inclusion of historical buildings in the modern urban structure. The relevance of the study is caused by necessity to preserve the defined phenomena as soon as possible and to give an art valuation, as it artistic components are being lost. The study and preservation of artistic monuments is one of the important issues of nowadays in the context of both regional memorial protection programs and national historical and cultural heritage of Ukraine.

Analysis of recent research and publications. The main source base of work is the preserved samples of architectural buildings of Lutsk in the period of late XIXth - the begining of XXth century, scientific, specialized and methodical literature, fundamental works of Zabolotny V.G., Koloska B.V., Koch V., Lesika O.V., Logvina G. N., Metelnitsky R. G., Nekrasov M. A, Piasetsky V. E. and others, materials of funds of the Volyn Regional Archives. Closest to highlighting the issues of artistic decoration in Volyn region came Lozko S., G. Yurchenko, V. Samoylovich, M. Seredyuk, A. Danyluk.

Modern researchers of the folk architecture conduct comprehensive study of the ethnographic and architectural heritage , in particular monuments of the wooden monumental art: I. Mohitich, L. Pribeha, V. Samoilovich, V. Slobodyan, R. Sulik, Y. Kravchenko and others.

Historiographical review of literature testifies that in the overwhelming majority of works scholars cover the development of artistic crafts in traditional regions and centers, the creativity of individual masters, technology and production technology, without paying proper attention to the artistic system of decoration of residential buildings.

The aim of the research - the determination of the artistic and symbolic features of the system of decoration of residential buildings of Lutsk at the end of the XIXth - early XXth century, local features of wooden decor, studying it in the system of material and spiritual culture, analysis of compositional-stylistic means of forming the exterior in the context of socio-economic and cultural conditions of the region's development with the purpose of creative assimilation and introduction of artistic ideas of traditional decor in contemporary architectural design.

Presentation of the main material. Historically and culturally shaped subject-spatial environment accumulates architectural, technological, artistic and decorative achievements of our people in the field of material culture and artistic crafts.

The origins of traditional construction decor reaching time of pre-Christian era. Wood carvings, known to the East Slavic peoples since ancient times, have been widespread in all regions of Ukraine, especially in the forest lane. In stylistic variations, iconographic motifs of architectural carving and decor of household items and tools of work combined high skill and artistic tradition.

Due to the decorative possibilities of wood and relatively stable physical and mechanical characteristics, the masters successfully used it for the harmonization of structural parts of buildings, which also affected the artistic and aesthetic features of architectural decor. Wooden elements are characterized by the artistic expression, in particular, flat and volumetric profiling of pillars, windshields, railing, girders of the gables, grunts of casts, openwork and overhead carving of the building.

Among the favorite motifs of decoration - geometric: triangles, diamonds, squares; solar (stars, crosses, circles) and other signs; floral: loose branches, flowers, vases; zoomorphic: silhouettes of horse heads, birds, etc. Ornamental motifs-symbols-signs indicate that Ukrainian folk ornamentation was an organic and extremely important component of the world sign system of symbols [1, p. 112].

In residential buildings, usually, roof, windows, doors, auditory and doricleafdoemer-windows, corners of the walls, as well as porches, verandas and terraces (if any) were decorated.

The main element of the decoration of the roof were boards, carved on one side, which were nailed above the entrance and on the edges of the roof along the walls, and the "wooden guardians", nailed to the highest point of the roof - crests.

Among the most interesting symbolic images in the Lutsk wooden carving attracts the attention the Great Mother-Beregynia, which is interesting because in the middle two squares are cut out - symbols of June, curved downwards, through circle - a symbol of water (according to B. Rybakov). Based on this, we can make the conclusion that this image preserved the magic of inducing the rain.

Window, as a three-tiered model of the world, divided by frames into rectangles, meant the earth. The same importance was attached to the shutters, which were divided into rectangles - symbols of field.

Images placed under a window frame meant the light of night, evil forces, so the images are all upside down. Through the window, a connection was made with the world of the dead - so the carolers, as conditional representatives of that world, served lured only through the window [2, p. 246].

The boards of the porch had interesting shapes with filed plant ornaments, which sometimes resembled a snake, which, according to the plan of the first creators of this decorative element, could act as the guardian of the house.

Interesting symbolism of the windows in the verandas can be traced. Their vertical frames, apparently, meant rain, and diamonds and crossed squares and rectangles - the earth. In the upper row of the window, the craftsmen sought to convey the upper sky. These could be half-spheres or stylized images of Goddesses. Below there were a number of triangles and crosses - the lower clouds, from which downwards were straight frames, which seemed to symbolize rain. Even lower they passed into crossed diamonds and squares, which meant the ideogram of the earth. It should be noted that this scheme, with a few exceptions, was observed throughout Lutsk [3, p. 24].

The roof gut was divided into three spheres: in the upper triangle the sun was depicted, in the middle trapezoid several rows of boards in the form of a broken line, and in the lower - vertical, sharpened at the bottom narrow edges along broader boards that resembled the rain. Similar images have been known since the Neolithic times, where they were indispensable attributes of ceramics. The borrowing of symbols from ceramic dishes is a sign of the universality of their magical influence. B. Rybakov saw this universalism in the spell of evil forces, as a result of which «one and the same principle of the placement of a charm ornament was consistently implemented in architecture and clothing - all the holes were ornamented through which all kinds of troubles could invade the person» [ 4, p. 416].

At the end of XIXth - early XXth century, largely under the influence of urban fashion, geometric and flora figures became widespread that were superimposed on architectural design elements of the dwelling facade on the decorated carvings.

A considerable amount of geometric ornamental motifs, which had magical meaning in ancient times, were preserved and were a kind of awe-protecting from evil forces. However, over time, their semantics was forgotten, their original meaning was lost and the carved decor became only artistic decoration [5, p. 132].

Conclusions. Wooden decor of the residential architecture of the city of Lutsk at the end of the XIXth - early XXth century includes such typological groups: pillars, releases (brackets), wind boards, railings, crochet roofs, window frames, doors, etc. Each of them consists of several subgroups that differ in the set of certain decorative and formal features that contribute to their identification.

Stylistics of wooden architectural decoration is a combination of separate components, in particular, carpentry profiling, flat-threaded carvings, artistic peculiarities of the decoration, plastics of precise details and motifs of decorative art. The artistic system of architectural decoration is based on national and local traditions.

The conduct of this study has shown that ignoring the traditions of artistic and decorative ornamentation leads to the loss of integrity of utilitarian-aesthetic and figurative-symbolic systems. Studying the semantics of ornamental carved elements and their complex characteristics, location in the exterior system allows us to determine the role, meaning and outlook of the people in the past.

The achievement of high level of organization of the modern environment is possible under the conditions of profound knowledge of the traditions of folk arts and crafts, the ability to apply them in practical activities in accordance with modern production technologies and materials and formulating principles.



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